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You are under risk of infestation from Indian meal moth (IMM), Plodia interpunctella, when storing or processing natural commodities. What does an IMM Mating Disruption (MD) program offer an IMM IPM Program? Herein James Miller, ACE - Market Manager, PCO with Trécé Incorporated, reviews the important aspects of IMM MD in a Food Safety IPM Program.
1 What is IMM MD?
Mating disruption (MD) is the use of a non-toxic synthetic replica of the female-produced sex pheromone to suppress, deny, or delay the mating cycle of IMM adults.
2 How does IMM MD work?
There are three principle modes of action for IMM MD including sensory overload, false-trail following, and delayed mating. False-trail following is often considered the most important mode of action.
3 How do we use IMM MD?
There are three critical steps for a proper MD program: (1) Calculate the volume of the facility; (2) select the application rate according to label directions, considering abundance of insects; and (3) distribute the dispensers in a grid-like pattern throughout the treatment site.
4 What is the most important part of an IMM MD program?
Managing expectations. IMM mating disruption does not kill or eliminate IMM like traditional insecticides. As part of an IPM program, it is important to discuss the specifics of your program with your provider and understand the merits and usage of mating disruptants, so you know what to expect, and when and if, other IPM methods may be needed for en-hanced efficacy.
5 What about the cost associated with an IMM MD program?
Mating disruption provides three to 12 months of coverage per application depending on the product chosen. While the initial cost may seem high, the value can be shown through a comparison with your current control or management program. How many ULV insecticide treatments, IGR treatments, fumigations, discarded products, plant shutdowns, and other costs can be replaced with a successful mating disruption program?
As Product Marketing Manager, Sharon Dinges is passionate about assisting poultry producers in delivering high quality protein products to the market. She advocates for IPM programs that feature rat fertility control to help the poultry industry reduce operating losses, increase biosecurity, and improve operating margins.
1 Why be proactive regarding rat population control?
Rats are a direct vector in diseases such as Salmonella Enteritidis (SE). The larger the rat population in the facility, the higher the risk of a positive swab for SE.
2 Is the risk associated with rats mainly due to food safety risks and liabilities?
Rats’ inherent gnawing behavior results in structural and infrastructure damage; the larger the population, the larger the risk of loss. Rats also have a voracious appetite for poultry feed and can contaminate up to 10x the amount they consume. They also prey on chicks and pullets, increasing stress in more mature poultry.
3 How does a rat contraceptive support a poultry facility’s IPM?
Under ideal conditions, a single breeding pair of rats can produce as many as 15,000 descendants in a single year. Traditional rodenticides may be able to temporarily knock down a rat population, but over time the population will typically rebound.
ContraPest is a rat contraceptive that integrates easily into a poultry facility’s existing IPM, targeting the rat problem at its source — rapid reproduction rate. ContraPest provides fertility control for both male and female rats, resulting in reduced litters and pups per litter.
4 What does a poultry facility typically experience after adding ContraPest to its IPM program?
When poultry facilities have made ContraPest available on a consistent basis as part of their IPM, conditions improve. This includes: fewer man hours required to repair damage from rats, reduced damage to critical infrastructure, less shrinkage of feed and chicks, and even improved working conditions.
5 How can SenesTech assist PMPs to integrate ContraPest into an existing IPM?
SenesTech knows that each production facility has unique needs and requirements. The SenesTech team provides strategic tools, supported by our real-world, wildlife behavior experience. This allows the team to serve as a trusted advisor to pest management professionals who wish to add ContraPest to the IPM program of their customers.
Biofilms are complex matrices of extracellular matter that can harbor micro-organisms. Remco’s Education and Support Manager Amit Kheradia explains why adequate mechanical cleaning of contact surfaces is required to remove rigid biofilms that may allow for pathogens to survive, grow, and spread to contaminate other facility areas and food products.
1 How are biofilms different from the “free-floating” bacterial pathogens?
“Free-floating” planktonic pathogens like L. monocytogenes may secrete a slimy, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that can enmesh other organisms, nutrients, moisture, and foreign material to form a self-sustaining microbial biofilm community. Unlike the planktonic cells, biofilms will firmly attach to a contact surface, which makes them much harder to remove.
2 Why should food facilities be concerned about biofilm-buildup on the surfaces?
Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes (responsible for causing about 44% of FDA food recalls) are capable of developing biofilms. With time, resident pathogenic strains may emerge in a facility that are not only difficult to eradicate, but may also persist in the environment to cross-contaminate food and surfaces for longer periods at unpredictable rates. Therefore, timely biofilm control is necessary to avoid foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls.
3 Where can you find biofilms in a typical food production plant?
Typical spots to look out for are cracks, narrow nooks and crevices, rough welds, hollow tubes and supports, close-fitting metal-to-metal or metal-to-plastic surfaces, worn seals, gaskets, and other areas that cannot be reached during routine cleaning and sanitizing. It’s less likely biofilms will form on even, smooth, regularly cleaned, sanitized, and maintained surfaces.
4 What are some key challenges encountered when removing biofilms from surfaces?
Biofilm-enclosed microbes can be up to 3,000 times more resistant to chemicals than the free-floating cells. Moreover, a biofilm can protect pathogens from antimicrobials, heat, and radiation. They are also more difficult to detect and remove when they mature with time, or as they evolve to dry surface biofilms capable of surviving in low-moisture environments.
5 Which biofilm control strategy is most effective, and how can Remco help?
Risk-based scheduled cleaning of facility areas, fixtures, equipment, and tools is the best approach when integrated with preventive maintenance, sanitary design, hygienic practices, and zoning programs. Remco can assist companies with the right selection, storage, care, and maintenance of cleaning, sanitation and material handling tools. Moreover, we have tools, such as the Vikan UST brushes, that are capable of easy decontamination after surface biofilm removal.
Amino acids are involved in building proteins, hormones and neurotransmitters. They are vitally important for human health. Accurate labeling of foods and supplements for protein content or individual amino acids is necessary to ensure regulatory compliance. Maria Ofitserova, PhD, Senior Research Chemist at Pickering Laboratories, Inc., discusses common questions about the analysis of amino acids in different matrices.
1 How is the protein content of foods determined for labeling purposes?
For a long time, protein content was estimated based on the analysis of total nitrogen. Unfortunately, this approach is error-prone and unable to catch adulteration, which can be particularly devastating in products such as infant formula. Using analysis of individual amino acids to determine protein content is the most accurate method. It should be used whenever possible, but especially when labeling foods designed to be sole sources of nourishment or which address special dietary conditions.
2 How should the supplements industry approach testing?
Manufacturers of supplements containing proteins and individual amino acids need to test both raw materials and final products to ensure the accuracy of label claims and support industry standards throughout the supply chain. Amino acids should be analyzed by a sensitive, accurate, and robust method. Preferably one that works for wide variety of supplements, naturally derived or synthetic. Choosing the right method guarantees product quality and increases consumer confidence.
3 What are the advantages of amino acids analysis with post-column derivatization?
Amino acids analysis with Ninhydrin post-column derivatization is matrix-independent. The same simple extraction methods, without any additional clean up, and the same analytical conditions can be used for a wide variety of samples. This is especially important for complex samples analyzed without hydrolysis, such as botanicals, supplements, clinical samples, and specialized foods and drinks.
4 What other industries need to analyze amino acids?
The European Pharmacopeia mandates the post-column method for amino acids analysis. It is a method of choice in the pharmaceutical industry for monitoring production processes and quality of recombinant proteins. In addition, analysis in blood and urine samples allows doctors to diagnose and monitor numerous metabolic diseases, including inborn errors of metabolism such as Phenylketonuria and Maple Syrup Urine Disease. This testing is extremely important for every newborn child.
5 How are Pickering Laboratories’ products used in amino acids analysis?
Pickering Laboratories, Inc. manufactures post-column derivatization instruments and the full complement of consumables for amino acids analysis, including columns, reagents, eluants, and calibration standards. Our products are successfully used for the analysis of food and drinks, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals, and clinical samples. We also offer expertise in method development and validation to help our customers implement and efficiently run our methods.